Adult winter
Slaty-backed Gull
Larus schistisagus
Dec.4th 2008 Miura Kanagawa Japan

This page first shows 7 photos of one Slaty-backed Gull taken during 14:34 to 14:36 with no retouch of lightness and contrast. The sand on the bill-tip will prove that these are the same individuals. Note the apparent variability of mantle shade.

Left:original, high key version. Right: retouched, low key version of the same photo.
Of course an original version either doesn't always show true color. In the field, the mantle of this individual seemed to fit about 10 of Kodak Gray Scale.

These are old photos of Slaty-backed Gulls taken by negative films in 1990's. Now we are not sure how dark the 2 adults in the left photo were in real life. Old photos often show rough, high contrast compared to fine expression of recent digital photos. True variation in mantle shade of Slaty-backed Gull that presumedly fills in the blank just between Laughing Gull and Great black-backed Gull actually exists. But apparent shades in photos are more surprisingly influenced by various conditions such as types and setups of the camera, strength and directions of sunlight, background colors, and specifications of computer monitor or ( in cases of publications) quality of print.